About Trees, Shrubs, Roots and Vines

trees descriptions image Asparagus
Chokeberry (Aronia)
American Cranberry (Vaccinium)
Highbush Cranberry and other Viburnum Species
Juneberries (Amelanchier)
Lingonberries (Vaccinium)
Winterberry (Ilex)

Years to Bearing is an estimate; your results will vary depending on climate, site, soil, nutrients, light, spacing, pruning.


Asparagus officinalis. Years to Bearing: approximately 3-4.

A spring staple for millennia, asparagus is thought to have originated around the Mediterranean Sea, perhaps in Asia Minor. The pharaohs, Greeks and Romans were all aware of its highly nutritious qualities and delectable flavor. The earliest known American horticultural advertisement, from March 1719, is for “English Sparrow-grass Roots.” Uncut shoots become a light green feathery hedge, a beautiful backdrop to a flower garden. Honeybees love the dainty dangling flowers, which develop into bright red spherical seed pods on female plants. Occasionally non–spear-forming females will show up in a planting. Leave them be or rogue them out as you wish.

Growing Asparagus: Requires fertile soil and high levels of phosphorus. Plant 14–18" apart, 6–10" deep, in trenches 4' apart. Or dig your trenches somewhat deeper and fill the bottom with 4" of compost and rotted manure. Lay plants with crown up and cover with 2" of soil. Plants emerge very slowly. As young shoots grow, add soil gradually, just covering the shoots, until the trench is full. In late fall, remove dead stalks and mulch with 3" of manure.

  • Second summer: Fertilize with Gungnir Asparagus Mix, a well-balanced blend of organic fertilizers formulated and mixed by Fedco. Control weeds but do not injure crowns.
  • Later years: Same routine but increase fertilizer. Be sure to leave some spears each year to grow stalks that will support the roots and give you more spears next year. Keep the bed weed-free and mulched heavily.
  • Harvest: We recommend caution in harvesting. Before the third or fourth season, harvest only the largest shoots from vigorous plants so the young plants can establish themselves. Uncut shoots become a light green feathery hedge, a beautiful backdrop to a flower garden. Honeybees love the dainty dangling flowers of asparagus.
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Aronia spp. has gotten a lot of press in recent years as a superfruit: it has wonderful medicinal qualities, works well in a range of culinary applications and is an important wildlife plant in the native landscape.

Both red (Aronia arbutifolia) and black (Aronia melanocarpa) chokeberries are edible when cooked, but we emphasize the red as more of a wildlife and landscape plant, while the black may be a better choice for medicine and food. Black chokeberries are commercially cultivated for their high levels of antioxidants and myriad health benefits. Both species are small rounded shrubs with blueberry-sized fruit and show-stopping electric-red fall foliage.

Begins to bear fruit in its third year and increases to full yield around five years. Ripens in late July or early August. If not harvested, the berries will hang on the bushes until songbirds eat them in late winter. Will form colonies. Not particularly picky about where it grows: adaptable to wet or dry areas, sun or partial shade. Free of diseases and insects. Native to Eastern United States.

Years to Bearing: approximately 3-5.

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Evergreen trees tolerate a wide range of soil conditions, but prefer slight acidity. If you are planting in dry or well-drained areas, dip tree roots in Agri-gel® solution before planting to protect roots from drying out. Do not use Agri-gel in heavy clay soils or wet areas. Do not soak conifers in the Agri-gel solution; a good dipping is sufficient.

Before planting, shear back the roots by about a third of their length. Dig a small hole or make an incision with a spade or planting bar and slip the tree in to the level it grew in the nursery, never below. Fan the roots out; do not wind them around in the hole. It is better to prune the roots than to crowd them in the hole. Water well and pack the earth down with your feet to remove air pockets.

Periodic deep waterings are far more beneficial than frequent sprinklings. Fertilization is not necessary in the first year. In later years you may fertilize around the drip line.

To make evergreens dense and compact, remove the central leader and the center bud at the end of each side branch.

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Malus spp. A crabapple is any apple with fruit smaller than 2" in diameter. Crabs bear edible fruit, some more favorable for culinary use than others. Some have persistent wildlife fruit that hangs on the tree for weeks or even months. Others have hardly any fruit at all. The flowers, tree form and even the shape of the leaves can vary subtly or profoundly. Most are magnificent in bloom and are often ornamental year round, especially in winter when the leaves drop and the trees show off their interesting forms. Although crabs prefer full sun and deep well-drained soils of 5.5–6.5 pH, they are quite forgiving and will thrive in many locations with a little TLC. Years to Bearing: approximately 5-7.

Crabapples have similar cultural requirements as culinary apples. All crabapple trees need a second variety for pollination, but any different crabapple or apple blooming around the same time within a quarter mile will do.

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American Cranberries

Vaccinium macrocarpon. Years to Bearing: approximately 3-5.

Dense low lustrous evergreen ground cover, reddish purple in fall and loaded with large red berries. Once established, makes a beautiful and edible “lawn.” Handpick or rake like blueberries before hard frost. Use fresh, freeze or store in a cool basement or root cellar for months. Bitter and alkalizing effects make it one of the most common remedies for bladder infections. An excellent source of vitamin C. Annually flooded for frost protection and harvesting convenience in commercial operations, but not necessary in home plots. Self-fertile. Native to northeastern U.S. and Canada.

Cranberries are shallow-rooted and require light acid soil (pH 4.0–5.5), preferably cool, moist and high in organic matter, similar to soil in which blueberries grow well. If you don”t have “blueberry” soil, test the pH of your soil and add sulfur as necessary to reduce pH. Will grow in dry locations. Plant them in spring once the ground can be worked in a bed or in a naturalized setting.

Instructions for a 5x5' cranberry bed (10 plants or divisions):

Prepare the soil:

  • For acidic “blueberry” soils: If you’re fortunate to have a site where blueberries grow naturally, clear a spot of vegetation, cultivate the soil, add some peat and sand if you like, and you’re ready to plant.
  • for sandy soils: Remove soil 10" deep and mix soil with 2 bales of damp peat moss. Replace mixture in bed and cover with 2" of sand.
  • Clay or silty soils: Remove soil 10" deep and place it around the edge of the bed as a berm. Replace the soil with a 50-50 mix of soil and peat (about 2 bales of peat). Cover with an additional 2" of sand.

Plant cranberries 12" apart, so the roots are in the peat and the sand is covering the lower portion of the stems. Remove all weeds as needed. Water the plants weekly so that the peat is moist but not saturated. Add nitrogen at a rate of ⅓–1 lb (or 20–50 lbs of manure) per 100 sq feet each year. If you're following the directions for a 5'x5' (25 sq foot)bed, you'll need 1/4 lb nitrogen or 5–12.5 lbs of manure . No pesticides should be necessary. Handpick before first hard frost when berries are red.

In late fall, cover the bed to protect the plants from the drying effect of winter winds. Use a mulch of leaves or pine needles; or cover with polyester row cover and then clear plastic; or cover with row cover and then plenty of leaves. You may want to bait for mice under row cover or plastic. Remove mulch in early April. Protect flower buds from 28° frosts by covering with plastic during frosty nights. Every two years partially cover the plants with a ½–1" layer of sand in spring before growth begins. This will help produce more berries and keep weeds down.

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Highbush Cranberry and Other Viburnums

The Viburnum genus encompasses more than 150 different species, which can range from dense shrubs lush with green foliage to more open and rangy small trees. Viburnums are prized for their multi-season interest, with blossom, berry and foliage varying by species. Flowers attract many butterflies and other early-season pollinators in spring. Ripening berries, some edible for humans, put on a show of color throughout the summer and are popular with birds and other wildlife. The Viburnums we offer are important wildlife plants and beautiful adaptable additions to the landscape. Plant multiples of a species for best results.

Growing Viburnums: Viburnums are generally easy to grow and adaptable. If grown in optimal conditions—moist rich well-drained soil and full sun to part shade—they will take on a fuller shape. That said, most Viburnums will also do well in the partial shade of wild borders and hedges. Although Viburnums are monoecious (both male and female flowers on the same plant), we recommend planting multiples of the same species for best fruit set.

Viburnum Pests: The viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) has become a problem in some areas. The larvae overwinter on twigs and can defoliate shrubs in spring and early summer. They seem to prefer Arrowwood, but we have seen them do a number on Wild Raisin and Nannyberry. Prune out and burn any egg-infested twigs in early spring before your shrubs are leafed out. Spraying with Spinosad in late April or early May when the larvae first emerge can also help. (Monterey Garden Spray is a Spinosad available from Fedco’s Organic Growers Supply.) Timing is key since spraying the eggs or adult beetles is less effective.

Highbush cranberry

Viburnum opulus var. americanum. Years to Bearing: approximately 3-4. Formerly known as V. trilobum. Also known as Crampbark.

Medicinal multi-stemmed native shrub. Clusters of 4" flat white flowers in May attract beneficial insects. Quite lovely in bloom. Pendulous bunches of red berries ripen mid-October, popular with dozens of bird species. Fruit is extremely rich in antioxidants and vitamins A and C. Although considered a wildlife plant, berries can be used for juice, jam, fruit leather and syrups—when boiling them down, don’t let the somewhat unpleasant odor deter you.

Bark is one of the most effective anti-spasmodic native medicinals. Harvest bark in April or early May before leaves emerge by running a sharp knife down the long younger stems. Make tea or tincture to relieve cramping and muscle tension of various sorts.

Tolerates dry soils that are high in organic matter, but prefers rich moist well-drained soils, sun or shade. Good for screens and hedges. Soil pH 6–7. Susceptible to viburnum leaf beetle; check with your local extension office or nursery to determine if this could be a problem. Not a bog cranberry. Native to northeast U.S. and Canada. Self-pollinating.

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Sambucus spp. Years to Bearing: approximately 2-4.

Elderberry trees appear in myths from days of yore, thought to possess magical and protective powers. Dangling clusters of edible purple-black berries ripen in late summer on this broad vigorous multi-stemmed shrub. The fruit is highly nutritious and medicinal. A century ago, every grandmother knew how to make the perfect elderberry pie. Recipes for jam could be found in all the old farm cookbooks. Elderberries have made a big comeback as folks rediscover the scrumptiousness of elderberry jelly, cordial, elixir and wine. The large creamy-white flower clusters, or cymes, that cover the shrub in early summer make delicious fritters. Dry them for a fragrant wintertime cold-and-flu remedy tea. For centuries, humans have used this plant’s medicinal qualities to treat a wide range of ailments and to boost the immune system. Hippocrates is said to have called the elder tree his “medicine chest.” Birds love the fruit, and the blossoms attract beneficial insects and pollinators. No serious pest or disease issues. Note: Cooking elderberries is essential to breaking down toxic cyanide-inducing glycosides in the seeds. Not for fresh eating.

Growing Elderberries: Elderberries are low-maintenance and easy to grow. They prefer moist soil with lots of compost, and full sun. That said, they are adaptable and will tolerate drier soil, poor drainage, and even temporary flooding. On the St. Croix River here in Maine, we’ve harvested elderberries from a canoe! Considered self-fertile but multiple plants will improve fruit set. Canadensis and nigra species will pollinate each other.

At planting time, add plenty of compost to the hole; sidedress with compost every spring. Susceptible to borers if weeds crowd the base, but aggressive weeding can disturb elders’ shallow roots—control weeds by mulching with a thick layer of hay, leaves or wood chips. With a little attention, your elderberries will provide strong yields of fruit for several decades.

Pruning Elderberries:

  • American Elder, S. canadensis: In spring, while plant is still dormant, prune away any weak, broken or dead canes. New canes will emerge. Fruit is produced on both new and old wood but best sets are on one- and two-year canes. Periodically cut out the oldest wood. Alternately, some people prefer to cut elders back to the ground each year and treat them like herbaceous perennials. These plants will produce fewer but larger clusters.
  • Western Elder, S. caerulea: Do nothing, or remove dead canes as needed. We offer this species occasionally.
  • European, or Black, Elder S. nigra: Fruits on second-year wood. It’s ok to prune in spring, but be sure to leave first-year canes for the next season’s yield.

Before cooking, remove elderberries from their stems. This can be done while the berries are fresh or frozen. We pick and pack entire panicles of berries into plastic bags and put the bags in the freezer. Once frozen, remove and whack the bag with a stick. The berries will easily fall from the stems. Snip a hole in the corner of the bag and the berries will roll out. Freezing will not damage the fruit.

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Calluna vulgaris Magical, mythical and medicinal evergreen groundcover features a spread of flowers and foliage that change color throughout the season. Colorful foliage in autumn. Revered in the British Isles, important medicinally in teas, honey, liniments and ointments. First fermented a few thousand years ago, used in gruit, ale, and might be the original ingredient for the first whiskey. Branches used in thatching, bedding, basketry, rope-making, broom-making and even insulation. Flowers attract bees, butterflies and moths, especially when planted in masses or as low-growing hedges. Heather honey is highly prized for medicinal benefit. Recommended as a groundcover, for rock gardens and edges of paths—or for opening the portals to the fairy world!

Native to the dry forests, heaths and bare grounds of Britain and Ireland. Each year we vary our selection but always offer the hardiest varieties proven to flourish in northern climates.

Requires acidic soil and full sun to partial shade. Plant about 18" apart each way and let it spread. Mix peat into the soil to lower the pH if necessary (see planting instructions for cranberries and blueberries), but heather does not tolerate wet spots as cranberries and blueberries do. Does not like high fertility. Shear every April for best bloom.

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Common Hops

Humulus lupulus. Years to Bearing: approximately 2-3.

Beautiful twining vine covers a trellis, archway or the entire side of a barn. Our favorite live awning to shade out the summer sun. Green lobed leaves, bristly stems, and insignificant greenish flowers, followed by the hops: papery aromatic cone-like strobiles used medicinally and in brewing for over 1000 years. Herbalist John Christopher recommends the strobile tea as “a powerful, stimulating and relaxing nerve tonic.”

For brewing, there are basically two types of hops. Aroma hops have a lower percentage of alpha acids and are used for flavoring, finishing or conditioning brews. Bitter hops have more alpha acids and are used to impart bitterness.

Growing Hops: Hops prefer rich light well-drained soil and full sun, but they are adaptable and will tolerate shade. Plant it where you’re sure you want it because the extensive root system can be hard to dig up. Dies back to the ground in fall and rebounds more vigorously each year.

Dig holes about 1' deep and at least 3' apart in rows. Add manure, compost and other slow-release organic fertilizers. Plant 1 or 2 rhizomes per hole, horizontally with the buds pointed up and cover with 1–2" of loose soil. The first year the hop plant requires frequent light watering and mulching.

Hops grow vertically, with lateral sidearms extending from the main vine and producing cones. Vines may grow up to 25' in a single season, and do best if they are trained onto strong twine 12–30' high, supported by a trellis, wire, pole, tree branch or south-facing building. When the young vines are about 1' long, select the 2 or 3 most vigorous vines per hill and remove the rest. Gently wrap the vines clockwise onto a string. Once trained, the vine will guide itself.

Pick the hops when they are papery but still slightly sticky and filled with yellow powder. Harvest dates will vary with the variety and climate. Because most hops are produced out of reach from the ground, it is safest to lower the vines in order to pick the hops. Dry hops thoroughly before use. Spread on screens in a dry room, they will dry in a few weeks. Dried hops freeze well.

Cut the vines back to the ground after they have been killed by frost. Each spring apply a hearty topdressing of manure and compost. To help control vigor, prune roots by cutting a 2–3' circle with a shovel around the base of the plant in spring.

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Amelanchier spp. Also called Juneberry, Parsonberry, Serviceberry, Saskatoon, Shadblow, Shadbush, Shad, and folks Downeast call it Wild Pear. Years to Bearing: approximately 3-5.

Amelanchier is a very hardy genus Spring-flowering shrubs and small trees with blueberry-like sweet edible berries. Very hardy genus, pronounced am-uh-LAN-sheer or -she-ur. Beautiful fragrant 5-petaled white flowers are early harbingers of spring in Maine. Purplish-black sweet berries good in pies, cobblers, jellies, jams, smoothies and cakes. Historically used by native peoples to make pemmican. Berries are about the size of a lowbush blueberry, or a bit larger, and seedier. Popular with wildlife. Nice red-orange fall color.

Thrives along stream beds as well as on rocky slopes. Tolerates partial shade, salt, pollution and wet spots but not standing water. Considered to be self-fruitful but we recommend planting with other Amelanchiers to ensure pollination. Taxonomy of Amelanchiers are a point of confusion in the nursery trade where common names and even botanical names are used interchangeably. Furthermore, these plants easily hybridize with each other in nature. We’ve highlighted salient features of each species in the product descriptions.

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Syringa spp. Lilacs have been a fixture in the New England landscape for generations. More often than not, when we find old apples trees, the ancient lilacs are not far away. The large rambling suckering shrubs continue to flourish each spring long after the buildings have disappeared and all that remains of homesteads are the remnants of stone foundations. Why were the lilacs always planted just outside the kitchen door? On cold winter mornings, someone would clean out the wood stove and sprinkle ashes on the icy path to the backhouse. Or maybe the path to the wood shed or the clothesline. Over the years, the earth outside the kitchen door became more alkaline, which lilacs love.

In the landscape, lilacs are excellent alone or in hedges. Deep green glossy heart-shaped foliage looks good all season. Intensely fragrant blooms in May. Flowers range from singles to doubles, pure white to the deepest purples, pinks, reds and lavenders. Ornamental, edible (frittered flowers à la elderberry), medicinal and a great Mother’s Day gift.

Growing Lilacs: Lilacs are adaptable, easy to grow, nearly indestructible and practically maintenance-free. They prefer well-drained moderately rich soil. Sandy gravelly loam is perfect. Full sun is best, but they’ll tolerate part shade. Add a shovelful of wood ash or lime to the hole at planting time, then add another shovelful of either every three years. A yearly mulch of manure or compost will encourage spectacular annual blooming. Pink, lavender and blue lilacs color up best in soil with a neutral pH.

How to Prune Lilacs: If you choose to prune your lilacs, do it right after flowering. Late-season pruning removes next year’s buds. As the plant matures, prune off a quarter of the new suckers and the oldest growth (a few main stems each year). Some growers prefer to keep the plant low and bushy. Do so by “topping” it off every year: prune any upright branch back to a junction with a lower branch. Others prefer a tall tree-like form. Our friends Philippe and Danielle have let theirs soar to 8' or more, removing the lower branches and creating a magical walkway in the process. Lilacs are more than willing to cater to your own personal vision. Have fun! No need to cut off spent flowers except for appearance.

Why isn’t my lilac blooming?

  • Too shady: lilacs need sun to form blossoms.
  • Over-pruned: pruned too late, removed buds. Also, some plants respond to excessive pruning by putting their energy into vegetative growth instead of flowering.
  • Too wet: lilacs like well-drained soil.
  • Over-fertilized: lilacs will bloom well without assistance. Too much fertility can lead more vegetative growth and inhibit bud formation.
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Vaccinium vitis-idaea Also called Foxberry, Cowberry, Mountain Cranberry. Years to Bearing: approximately 3-4.

Vigorous shallow-rooted spreading groundcover is related to blueberries and cranberries. Bright red glossy nutritious fruits are wicked tart until dead ripe, then have excellent flavor, richer and less astringent than cranberries. Can be eaten fresh but primarily used in sauces, jams, syrups, fruit leathers, juices and wines. Stores up to 2 months in the fridge. Small shiny dark green foliage is quite lovely. Adorable tiny bell-shaped white flowers in spring attract a plethora of pollinators. Extremely popular in Scandinavia and now catching on in the U.S. If you’ve got good soil for blueberries, try these. Berries ripen in late summer but are best after a frost. Harvest by hand or with a blueberry rake. Will produce 1–2 lbs per plant depending on the variety and can produce for up to 20 years.

Prefers full sun and poor sandy acid (pH 4.5–5) soils. Plant 12–18" apart in rows 3–4' apart. To ensure good fruit production, plant more than one variety. Native to circumpolar boreal forests. Incredibly tough and very hardy.

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Many of us are crazy about mushrooms. We love hunting for them in the damp forests during spring and fall, cooking them, tincturing them or just admiring their mysterious beauty. People have cultivated mushrooms for thousands of years. Around a century ago, American seed catalogs offered mushroom spawn bricks for 30¢ each, right there between the melons and the mustard.

We’re excited to collaborate with North Spore Mushrooms to offer the following selections for you to get started on your own fungus garden. These products are all Maine-grown without pesticides and on natural substrates. Most can be refrigerated until you are ready to start growing. Detailed instructions will be sent with your order and can be downloaded here as a pdf. We also have a comprehensive FAQ section below that will get you off to a good start.

Getting Started

First decide if you want plugs or sawdust spawn for your mushroom- growing adventure. Kits are a good choice for beginners.

Plug Spawn are small wooden dowels colonized by mushroom mycelium.

Sawdust Spawn is hardwood sawdust colonized by mushroom mycelium, and comes in a 5½ lb loaf. Depending on variety, it can be crumbled into outdoor beds or used for larger-scale log inoculation projects.

Plug Kit contains 100 plugs, wax, dauber, 5⁄16" drill bit, instructions. Everything but the log, drill and hammer to get you started.

Countertop Kits Simply slice open the bag, and keep in a humid environment, like beside the sink. Mushrooms should start to produce “pins” within 2 weeks and will grow quickly. Each kit contains a 4½-lb inoculated sawdust block that could produce up to 3 lbs of mushrooms over 2–4 months. Instructions included. The easiest way to get into growing mushrooms. Makes a great gift.

Growing Mushrooms

Log Method Drill holes in logs, insert plug spawn or sawdust spawn, then seal with wax. See mushroom tools, available at OGS. Be sure to choose an appropriate tree species for the mushroom (see variety descriptions.) We offer these options for log inoculation:

  • Plug Spawn 50 plugs will inoculate a single 4' long, 4" diameter log. Drill 1516" holes (or 8.5mm with angle-grinder adapter) into your log, hammer in the plugs and seal the holes with wax. Plugs are an excellent choice for beginners. Plugs come in bags of 100 or 500.
  • Sawdust Spawn Each bag contains 5½ lbs of hardwood sawdust colonized by mushroom mycelium, enough for about 25 logs. Drill 7/16" or 12mm holes in your logs, pack the sawdust using an inoculation tool and seal with wax. Good for commercial mushroom growers.

Outdoor Bed Method Some varieties can be grown in non- sterile outdoor beds of fresh wood chips, sawdust, straw or other organic matter. Plant them under orchard trees or in your garden paths! Layer Sawdust Spawn with your growing medium, and keep beds watered. One 5½-lb bag of sawdust spawn will inoculate a 4x4' bed. Once established, a well-maintained bed can produce for many seasons.

Growing Methods
Mushroom typeLog methodBed method
Almond Agaricus X
Hen of the WoodsX 
Lion’s ManeX 
Chicken of the WoodsX 
Golden OysterXX
Blue OysterXX
Italian OysterXX
Wine Cap X

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I get my order now or do I have to wait until April?
We ship spawn in April, during our regular trees and plants shipping season. The spawn supply is produced over the winter and is ready in the spring. Inoculating logs in spring optimizes success, especially for beginners and here in the cold North. We recommend you cut your log while it is still dormant and inoculate in the spring.
What kinds of trees can I cut for growing mushrooms?

Oak and Maple are preferred; they are very dense and offer a lot of nutrition for a longer sustained fruiting period. Poplar also works well with Oyster mushrooms. You can try a wide range of tree species including beech and birch, but you may get varying yields. Generally, poplar and other soft hardwoods will colonize faster and produce mushrooms sooner but don’t yield as much overall, or produce for as many years. Regardless of species, cut only living, disease-free wood.

There are different strains of mushrooms, and the suggestions for types of logs are based on North Spore’s particular strains.

type preferred possible
Chicken large oak (oak only)
Shiitake oak, maple alder, ash, beech, hickory
Reishi oak maple, plum
Oyster oak, maple, poplar alder, beech, birch
Lion's Mane oak, maple, poplar beech, birch
What size should the logs be?

Any size logs will work. You can use branches or saplings, if that is what you have available. Small-diameter wood will colonize faster, but will not produce for as many seasons as a larger log.

You don’t want the logs to be so large or heavy that they are difficult to use. For drilling methods, a 4-6" diameter with a 3-4' length is ideal. For the totem method, they can be up to a foot (or more!) in diameter, and 12-18" high.

When do I cut the logs?

The best time to cut is before the trees have budded out and the bark is still holding fast to the trunk. Fully leafed-out trees can also be cut for logs, if you’ve missed the dormant-tree window.

Then, wait at least a week before inoculating, but get it done within a month—long enough to allow the cells in the log to die but not long enough for the log to dry out, or for other competitor fungi to become established.

Do not cut logs in the period between bud swell and leaf-out.
Do not use logs cut last year.

What if I buy spawn and can’t get around to inoculating in the spring?
Store the spawn in the fridge and do it during the summer. Just be sure that you harvest your fresh log within a few weeks of inoculation. Avoid cutting logs during leaf-out. Dormant trees and fully leafed-out trees make the best logs.
What kind of yield can I expect?
Around two pounds per log per year is pretty typical, but this can vary quite a bit depending on the weather conditions, log size, wood type, whether or not you force fruiting, and other factors.
How long will it take from inoculation to harvest?
Mushrooms need cool wet weather to fruit, and growth slows in the heat of summer. With spring inoculation, it’s possible you may get your first flush of mushrooms in autumn, but more likely it will take a full year until you see your first fruiting.
How often should I water my log?
Logs stored in shady outdoor locations close to the ground generally retain enough moisture to colonize fully without watering. During especially dry periods, watering may be necessary but most of the time no supplemental watering is needed. Don’t let the log dry out but neither should you overwater it. It’s okay to water the log to force it to fruit, but most growers wait until the log fruits once naturally before starting to force fruit.
What tools do I need?
  • For plug spawn, you’ll need a drill with a 5/16" (8.5mm) bit to make holes in the log, a hammer to drive the plugs into the holes, and wax to seal the holes.
  • For sawdust spawn, use a drill with a 7/16" (12mm) drill bit, and an inoculation tool to pack the sawdust into the holes. You can insert sawdust by hand, but an inoculation tool greatly speeds up the process and packs the sawdust more densely.
  • If you are inoculating many logs, instead of using a drill, you can put an adapter that takes a drill bit onto your angle grinder to help the work go more quickly and easily.
  • Seal the holes with hot wax (cheese wax, food-grade paraffin wax, beeswax) to prevent both dehydration and contamination with other, unwanted fungal species. Do not skip this step!
  • The totem method requires no special tools aside from a saw to cut the log. Wine Cap mushroom also needs no tools.
How long can I store mushroom spawn?
Plug and sawdust spawn will store for six months to a year in a refrigerator. Do not refrigerate Almond Agaricus.
How many plugs do I need for one log?
100 plugs will do 3-4 logs; the drill pattern does not need to be perfect.
How many years will a log produce mushrooms?
Two to four years, on average; varies by type of wood, size of log, whether or not it’s forced, rainy/dry balance, etc.
How do I choose plugs vs. sawdust?

Plugs are very resilient but are slower to colonize. Plugs require only a drill and hammer for tools, and are economical for smaller projects. Sawdust colonizes drilled logs about 30% faster than plugs. They’re good for larger projects, but an inoculation tool is recommended, along with other tools.

The totem method, using sawdust, is good for urban settings or other locations without access to a forested or shady area. No special tools are needed.

Can Wine Cap be grown using drill or totem methods?
No, the Wine Cap only grows on substrate that is already broken apart, like sawdust. It’s best in garden path areas or other places where beds of sawdust, wood chips or straw can be maintained.
It’s okay for the log to freeze over winter?
Yes, logs are fine outdoors in winter. A blanket of snow helps protect the logs from drying out.
Is it okay to inoculate one log with multiple types?
No, use only one species of mushroom per log. Multiple species will compete with each other and produce poor results.
Will Hemlock work for the Reishi?
No, not for the strain of Reishi that we are offering.
Are cultivated mushrooms the same size as their wild counterparts?
What kind of pests can I expect on my mushrooms?
Sometimes mammals like deer or squirrels may take a nibble or two out of mushrooms but generally they don’t devastate a crop. Occasionally you may find some insect damage. Just cut out that part; the rest of the mushroom will be fine.

Additional Resources:

We recommend the book The Essential Guide to Cultivating Mushrooms: Simple and Advanced Techniques for Growing Shiitake, Oyster, Lion’s Mane, and Maitake Mushrooms at Home.

The Cornell extension website hosts a lot of information on cultivating mushrooms, including short instructional videos. Click here to see online courses and videos on mushroom growing from the Cornell Small Farms Program.

Download fact sheets from Cornell with lots of good info on mushroom cultivation, including how to inoculate shiitake logs.

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Quercus spp. Many oaks are native to New England. They are generally divided into two groups: the reds and the whites. The reds have pointier leaves and the whites have rounder ones. Most of them make absolutely breathtaking shade trees, creating a major presence in almost any landscape and providing bountiful forage for wildlife and for humans. The strongly astringent inner bark, foliage and acorn caps are all medicinal, and acorns were an extremely important human food source for thousands of years. Contrary to much of the literature, all acorns are edible, both reds and whites. (For detailed instructions on acorn processing, see Samuel Thayer’s book, Nature’s Garden.) The tannins from a handful of oak leaves added to homemade half-sours will keep pickles crisp for months. Oaks are monoecious so you need only one to get fruit.

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Rheum rhabarbarum. Early Summer. Famous for pie and wine, but also good in sauce, bread, juice, soup or cooked with meat and fish. Rhubarb’s clumps of juicy acid leaf stalks were once a staple food. The root is a toning purgative herb traditionally used every spring for thousands of years. There are dozens if not hundreds of rhubarb varieties. May have originated in Siberia and been carried across Asia on the Silk Road to Turkey and then into Europe. Victorian cookbooks included rhubarb compotes, fools and charlottes. Eventually brought to North America through the efforts of Ben Franklin and John Bartram. Low-maintenance; will continue through summer if flower stalks are removed and new leaves allowed to grow. Leaves are not edible.

Growing Rhubarb

Plant the top of the root division level with the surface in well-prepared well-drained rich slightly acid soil (pH 5.5–6.5). Plant crowns 2–4' apart in rows 3–4' apart. Add a bushel of well-rotted manure or compost under each crown. When plant is established, fertilize liberally with manure and balanced garden fertilizer, such as our Vegemighty mix or compost every spring, as it’s a heavy feeder.

Harvest for 4 weeks 2 years after planting. Thereafter you can harvest for 8–10 weeks each year. Never remove more than two-thirds of the stalks from a plant. Water during dry spells for extended season.

Every 10 years or so, divide plants in early spring, leaving about a third of the crown in place. Cut up the remainder into fist-sized pieces and replant.

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Rosa spp. For millennia, roses have beguiled humans. The first cultivation of these flowers dates back more than 5000 years in China. Fossil records suggest that roses may have been around for more than 30 million years. Regarded as the ultimate icon of love, grace, beauty and elegance, roses continue to be the subject of art and poetry across the world.

Roses have long been used in medicine, food, tea and essential oils. In the first century, Pliny the Elder recorded more than 30 uses of rose medicine. Rose leaves, petals, hips and roots all have medicinal properties to treat a range of disorders from wounds to stomach problems. Rose hips are rich in vitamin C and make a wonderful “rose apple” jam; rose-petal elixir calms the nerves and lifts the spirit.

Each year, we aim to offer a diverse selection of unusual and antique varieties. If your favorite is not on the list this year, we may offer it in the future. Unlike hybrid tea roses, these roses are all vigorous, cold hardy, and on their own roots rather than grafted. The antique varieties grow slowly compared to newer hybrids and tend to be more difficult to propagate. You may notice that some of these roses have small root systems and little top growth. Don’t be alarmed by this—it’s just the nature of these old varieties. We can attest that they perform just as well as the others. If roots are tangled, cut them back to 6" or so and spread them out in the planting hole.

Native to temperate regions throughout the world.

Old-fashioned Roses

Roses grown in Europe before 1800 are referred to as “Old World” roses, including the cultivars of Rosa gallica and R. alba. Their pink color ranged from the deepest dark purple of ‘Cardinal de Richelieu’ to just a faint blush of pink like that of ‘Chloris.’ There were no reds among these antique roses and, though rich in fragrance, they bloomed only once per season. In the late 1700s red roses with repeat blooming tendencies were introduced from China, shifting the focus of rose breeding toward those traits. Demand for the aromatic and medicinal qualities of the Old World roses declined, supplanted by flowers that lasted long through the season. The hybrids created since the 1820s are called “modern” roses and are much more commonly seen in gardens today.

Rosa gallica is considered the oldest rose, steeped in history, legend and myth, and still grows wild in some places in the Caucasus, the mountainous region between the Black and Caspian seas, where it originated. Its exact origin is unknown but it can be traced back fourteen centuries when it was considered a symbol of love by the Persians. The aromatic petals hold their scent better than any other rose and have long been considered medicinal. This species contains hundreds of different cultivars, some very similar and others unique. Most have similar compact shrub habits and are generally very hardy. Most modern-day roses are presumed to be descendants of the gallicas.

Rosa alba is almost as old as gallica and is also believed to have travelled west from the Caucasus with the Greeks and Romans. Many of the alba cultivars were bred in the 1800s in Europe. Though they flower only once, they should not be overlooked, as their beauty and fragrance are unparalleled by any modern rose. They are considered “tree roses” with tall canes that can be trained to fences, pillars and stonewalls, like climbers. Unlike many roses, albas bloom on old wood—if pruned too heavily, they can take years to flower again. Like heirloom apples, they are actually more disease resistant than many of the modern hybrids.

Growing Roses

Roses prefer full sun, though some will tolerate partial shade. They will do well in most well-drained soils with a good amount of organic matter. In locations with poor drainage, add gravel at the bottom of the planting hole, or build in drainage. Pick a site with good air flow, but avoid sites with cold northwest winds. Avoid competition with tree roots. Space them 4–6' apart.

Plant roses as early as soil can be worked. Most roses’ roots don’t spread beyond the original hole, so dig a bushel-sized hole, as deep as 2' or more. Mix soil with liberal quantities of well-rotted manure and compost; Rainbow Valley or Coast of Maine Quoddy Blend are both good choices. Add a coffee-can full of rock phosphate or bone char.

Prior to planting, prune roses back to 3–5 of the best canes, 2–5" tall, and clip any dead tips. Plant them 1" below the level they were in the nursery. Add water as you fill in the hole to puddle it in.

Shrub roses and climbers will require little pruning in later years. Any pruning should wait until after the forsythia blooms. Remove dead or broken branches, and periodically cut out the oldest wood. Keep roses well mulched to retain moisture and reduce weeds. Apply our True Love Rose & Ornamental Mix once the soil has warmed, and/or add 2 shovelfuls of composted manure to each crown late in the fall.

Where did the Rosa rugosa seedlings go?

Rosa rugosa is in the hot seat in Maine. After several years on the Species Watch List, it recently landed in a worse category: Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species of Special Concern. Starting in 2024, all R. rugosa sold in Maine must be labeled with this message: “Invasive Species—Harmful to the Environment.” We will also be required to offer alternative non-invasive species and provide instructions for the care of rugosa to prevent its spread in the state.

Over the years some of you cursed us for offering rugosa, while others asked for more. We have offered it despite the controversy because we felt that—especially in inland garden settings—the benefits of this rugged beautiful rose outweighed its negative attributes. Herbalists of Western, Chinese and Ayurvedic traditions consider rugosa to be rejuvenating and cooling. The large edible red hips, full of vitamin C, are good eating fresh or for jelly and “rose-apple” jam. Tinctured petals soothe grief.

So what’s the problem? rugosa fruits, seeds and rhizomes can float with the tides and wash up on distant shore lands, where they can form massive colonies and create monocultures along the coast. Some scientists and naturalists have noted this chokes out native plants already doing a good job controlling erosion. Others argue that as our coasts experience more destructive tides and increasingly rapid erosion, rugosa might be one of the best plants for keeping our coastline intact.

Until we know more, we’re taking a break from offering the straight species. We may bring it back in future catalogs, so stayed tuned. In the meantime, we secured a great supply of roses this year including hybrid rugosas that share many of the same great traits with the seedling, minus the extreme colonizing traits. The downside is the loss of genetic diversity only seedlings can offer. Going forward, we’re hoping to offer more native seedling roses of other species, like R. caroliniana and R. virginiana.

The good news for those of you who want the rose hips is that there is a lot of rugosa on the coast of Maine and plenty of petals and fruit to harvest. If you are a private landowner with a good hedge of rugosa, please consider sharing your bounty with those who don’t have access to these areas.

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Salix spp. The genus Salix comprises hundreds of different species of plants most commonly called willows but sometimes called Osier or Sallow. Willows grow all over the world. Some, like the weeping willow, are towering specimens. Others are short scrubby bushes; willows growing in the arctic can be 100 years old only 2' tall! Uses include ornamental landscaping, shade, basket-making, erosion control, timber, fuel and medicine. All parts, especially the bark, contain salicin, used for relief of pain and fever for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. Aspirin is a synthetic analog of salicin. Willows feed local wildlife, insects and birds. We plant them near the orchard to provide early season forage for our native pollinators. All prefer sun and loamy wet soils, but are adaptable, easily transplanted and fast growing.

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Ilex verticillata. Also called Black Alder, Fever Bush, Possumhaw, Swamp Holly and more. Deciduous suckering medicinal holly with clusters of upright stems. Best known for profusions of bright red ⅜" berries which stand out after the leaves fall—they keep their color all winter, spectacular against the snow. A staple of the Maine landscape, providing late-spring forage for birds. Lustrous deep green leaves retain their color long after they’re cut for decoration. Richly foliated, but open enough to display interesting branch structure. Tiny white flowers in mid-July attract pollinators. Excellent fall wildlife forage plant. Leaves used for tea and tonic, astringent bark used in herbal medicine.

Tolerates dry conditions but prefers moist or wet acidic soil, even standing water. Sun or partial shade. No serious pests or diseases. Male and female plants required for fruit, which is produced on female plants. Plant males within 30' of females. Native from midwestern to eastern U.S.

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