Culture: Hardy. Require warm temperatures to germinate, but need 60s during seedling stage for optimal growth; higher temperatures make seedlings leggy. Heavy feeders; for best growth, need regular moisture and 2–3' spacing. Have done well for us succeeding onions and garlic in beds. Cauliflower and broccoli are damaged by hard frosts, especially in spring. Days to maturity are from direct seeding. Subtract 20 days from date of transplanting.
Pests & diseases: See below for more details. Based on six years here in Woodchuck Heaven, broccoli and brussels sprouts seedlings are the preferred choice for groundhog gourmets. Young edamame is next, with beans, carrot and parsnip tops and sweet corn a distant third. Kaidog kept me groundhog-free for over a decade in Maine, but did not make the move here. Gene uses Havahart traps.
Note: We cannot ship brassica packets larger than 1/2 oz into the Willamette Valley because of a rule issued by Oregon.
- DM: Downy Mildew
- FY: Fusarium Yellows
Major pests: Cabbage Looper, Diamondback Moth, Imported Cabbageworm
Cultural controls: control cruciferous weeds near crop fields, till-under crop debris of early-season brassicas after harvest.
Materials (see OGS catalog
for these products): Spinosad (8922-4
), Bt (8902
Pest: Flea Beetle
Cultural controls: floating row covers (9101
), mulch with straw, time plantings for fall harvested crops only, crop rotation, perimeter trap cropping.
Materials: Spinosad (8922-4
), Pyganic (8925
), Mycotrol O (8898
Pest: Cabbage Root Maggot
Cultural controls: time planting to avoid first hatching, use row covers, control weeds.
Material: Nematodes (8941-3
Major diseases: Black Rot, Alternaria Leaf Spot, Blackleg, Club Root, Downy Milldew, White Mold
Cultural controls: avoid transplanting plants with yellow leaves or v-shaped lesions, crop rotation, destroy crop debris after harvest, avoid overhead irrigation, control weeds, allow for good air movement.
Materials: Actinovate (8851
), copper compounds (8861-3
) may help for some of these diseases.
Disease: Head Rot
Cultural controls: use well-domed varieties, harvest heads when tight, cut stalks at an angle.
Brassica oleracea (capitata group) ~6,000-7,000 seeds/oz, 210-250 seeds/g. Blue-purple foods such as red cabbage and purple cauliflower contain anthocyanins and phenolics, which benefit the urinary tract, memory and immune system.
Culture: Exposure to hoarfrost is good for cabbages. They double their sugar content after one month of cold.
Minimum germination soil temperature 40°, optimal range 55–95°, optimal temperature 77°. Emergence takes 15 days at 50°, 9 days at 59°, 5 days at 77°.
- BR: Black Rot
- BS: Bacterial Speck
- FY: Fusarium Yellows
- TB: Tipburn