2 gram packet sows 45 ft. Average about 7,500 seeds per oz with significant variation between the different vegetables. See the planting chart on page 81 for details. Hardy. Require warm temperatures to germinate, but need 60s during seedling stage for optimal growth; higher temperatures make seedlings leggy. Heavy feeders; for best growth, need regular moisture and 2–3' spacing. Have done well for us succeeding onions and garlic in beds. Cauliflower and broccoli are damaged by hard frosts, especially in spring. Days to maturity are from direct seeding. Subtract 20 days from date of transplanting.
Brassica oleracea (capitata group) Efforts to eat more local produce are turning people’s attention back to lactic fermentation, the age-old method for making pickled foods like sauerkraut and kimchi. Easy to do at home, lactic fermentation is the work of a succession of microbial species. The first ones produce lactic acid making the mix acidic, killing undesirable organisms and fostering microbes that complete the reaction. Sauerkraut is immune-enhancing and easier to digest with more available nutrients than raw cabbage. See Preserving Food without Canning or Freezing (9802) andThe Art of Fermentation (9614) in the book section for explanations and recipes.
Exposure to hoarfrost is good for cabbages. They double their sugar content after one month of cold. Blue-purple foods such as red cabbage and purple cauliflower contain anthocyanins and phenolics which benefit the urinary tract, memory and immune system. Minimum germination soil temperature 40°, optimal range 55–95°, optimal temp. 77°, emergence takes 15 days at 50°, 9 days at 59°, 5 days at 77°.
Major pests: Cabbage Looper, Diamondback Moth, Imported Cabbageworm
Cultural controls: control cruciferous weeds near crop fields, till-under crop debris of early-season brassicas after harvest.
Materials: Spinosad (8922-4), Bt (8902).
Pest: Flea Beetle
Cultural controls: floating row covers (9101), mulch with straw, time plantings for fall harvested crops only, crop rotation, perimeter trap cropping.
Materials: Spinosad (8922-4), Pyganic (8925), Capsaicin (Bugitol 8890).
Pest: Cabbage Root Maggot
Cultural controls: time planting to avoid first hatching, use row covers, control weeds.
Material: Nematodes (8941-3).
Major diseases: Black Rot, Alternaria Leaf Spot, Blackleg, Club Root, Downy Milldew, White Mold
Cultural controls: avoid transplanting plants with yellow leaves or v-shaped lesions, crop rotation, destroy crop debris after harvest, avoid overhead irrigation, control weeds, allow for good air movement.
Materials: Actinovate (8851), copper compounds (8861-3) may help for some of these diseases.
Disease: Head Rot
Cultural controls: use well-domed varieties, harvest heads when tight, cut stalks at an angle.